Physics

Viewpoint: Supermassive Black Gap Could Constrain Superlight Darkish Matter


Eric Armengaud, IRFU, CEA, College of Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

July 10, 2019• Physics 12, 78

An interpretation of the black gap picture taken by the Occasion Horizon Telescope hints of latest constraints on the mass of darkish matter.

Figure captionexpand figure

EHT Collaboration

Determine 1: Picture of the supermassive black gap M87*, taken by the Occasion Horizon Telescope.

Figure caption

EHT Collaboration

Determine 1: Picture of the supermassive black gap M87*, taken by the Occasion Horizon Telescope.×

Not too long ago, astronomers obtained the primary picture of the accretion disk across the horizon of a supermassive black gap utilizing a world-wide community of radio observatories known as the Occasion Horizon Telescope (EHT) [1]. Black-hole-related observations can present assessments of latest, unique bodily processes and, specifically, they will level towards or exclude some darkish matter fashions. Hooman Davoudiasl and Peter Denton from Brookhaven Nationwide Laboratory in New York have now interpreted the EHT observations within the context of an interesting ultralight darkish matter situation, known as fuzzy darkish matter (FDM) [2]. The researchers studied the implications of the EHT black gap’s estimated rotation price on the so-called superradiance impact—which is an enhanced particle emission course of that may gradual the rotation price of a black gap. As present observations recommend that the black gap is quickly spinning, Davoudiasl and Denton have been in a position to place new bounds on acceptable lots for darkish matter.

Darkish matter, a key ingredient of recent cosmology, is a bodily object whose gravitational results are noticed in a variety of programs, from small, close by galaxies to the primordial plasma as probed by the cosmic microwave background. Nevertheless, its elementary nature continues to be utterly unknown. A well-liked mannequin is the WIMP or weakly interacting huge particle, which has an anticipated mass on the order of 100GeV∕c2 ( 1011eV∕c2 ). A number of ongoing experiments are trying to find WIMPs, however nothing has turned up but. As a consequence, researchers are turning their consideration to a big number of darkish matter fashions, with lots within the vary from round 10−22eV∕c2 to a number of occasions a photo voltaic mass ( 1066eV∕c2). It’s on the mild finish of this spectrum that the current EHT picture (Fig. 1) performs a job.

The FDM situation assumes that darkish matter particles are many orders of magnitude lighter than different particles. Such ultralight particles seem in a number of situations past the usual mannequin of particle physics [3, 4]. Particularly, the existence of sunshine bosonic fields (particularly, pseudoscalars) is a generic prediction of string idea. The particles related to these fields have a variety of lots, however to ensure that them to represent a big fraction of darkish matter, their mass should be above roughly 10−22eV∕c2 (see 9 August 2000 Focus story). The explanation for this decrease sure is that darkish matter particles lighter than this worth would have had a really giant quantum uncertainty of their place throughout the early Universe. This unfold in place would result in a clean density distribution, which is inconsistent with the large-scale galactic construction that’s noticed right this moment. Alternatively, if the darkish matter particles have a mass round or barely above 10−22eV∕c2, the big spatial extension of their quantum wave operate may really resolve some issues at subgalactic scales with the usual cosmological mannequin, which assumes a heavy darkish matter particle. The potential to resolve such points is among the primary motivations for investigating FDM [5].

To this point, researchers have studied the implications of the FDM fashions on the construction of the Universe on the million-light-year scale. These research, which analyzed small galaxies at very excessive redshifts and density fluctuations of the intergalactic medium, supplied decrease bounds of round 10−21eV∕c2 for the mass of darkish matter. Nevertheless, these bounds should not but utterly strong due to uncertainties, they usually can not simply be prolonged to bigger values of the darkish matter mass.

Right here’s the place black holes enter the story. Round quickly rotating black holes, common relativity predicts the existence of a area exterior the occasion horizon, named the ergoregion, through which spacetime is “dragged” across the black gap. Underneath sure circumstances, particles within the ergoregion can escape and carry with them vitality—and spin—from the black gap. That is the superradiance course of [6]. Contemplate now the case when the particles in query are bosons, with a mass m such that their Compton wavelength is of the order of the occasion horizon radius, which suggests m ∼hc∕GMBH the place h is the Planck fixed, c is the velocity of sunshine, G is the gravitational fixed, and MBH is the mass of the black gap. These boson particles will type an “atom” across the black gap (analogous to typical atoms, with gravity changing electromagnetism and the black gap changing the nucleus). The wave operate of this atom will overlap with the ergoregion, inflicting an enhanced emission of particles that quickly extracts angular momentum from the black gap (see 24 July 2017 Viewpoint).

It’s a tough activity to compute the main points of this superradiance course of in practical conditions [7]. Nonetheless, a generic consequence of the superradiance mechanism is that observing a fast-spinning black gap with a given mass MBH implies that it has not been spun down by the superradiance course of and—by extension—there can’t be any mild bosons with mass m near hc∕GMBH. There are estimations of the mass and spin for each stellar-mass black holes in our Galaxy and supermassive black holes on the heart of different galaxies, which have led to constraints on mild bosonic particles with lots round 10−11eV∕c2 and 10−17eV∕c2, respectively [8]. Word that this mechanism is impartial of whether or not the bosonic particles represent darkish matter or not.

Figure captionexpand figure

Determine 2: Bounds on the fuzzy darkish matter (FDM) situation: Decrease bounds come from giant scale galactic construction observations (inexperienced) and measurements of excessive redshift galaxies and density fluctuations within the intergalactic medium (blue). A brand new restrict on the increased finish of the FDM mass vary has been obtained from observations of the supermassive black gap M87* (pink).Bounds on the fuzzy darkish matter (FDM) situation: Decrease bounds come from giant scale galactic construction observations (inexperienced) and measurements of excessive redshift galaxies and density fluctuations within the intergalactic medium (blue). A brand new restrict on the excessive… Present extra

Figure caption

Determine 2: Bounds on the fuzzy darkish matter (FDM) situation: Decrease bounds come from giant scale galactic construction observations (inexperienced) and measurements of excessive redshift galaxies and density fluctuations within the intergalactic medium (blue). A brand new restrict on the increased finish of the FDM mass vary has been obtained from observations of the supermassive black gap M87* (pink).×

To probe the unexplored darkish matter mass vary of round 10−21 to 10−18eV∕c2 with superradiance, notably huge black holes are wanted. The supermassive black gap M87* within the heart of the close by galaxy M87 is the proper goal. The current EHT observations confirmed that it has a big mass of 6.5×109 photo voltaic lots, whereas additionally indicating a excessive spin price—primarily based on measurements of a jet related to M87* [9]. Of their new evaluation, Davoudiasl and Denton use the EHT outcomes—in addition to easy estimations for the superradiance price and lifelong of M87*—and conclude that mild bosons with lots between about eight.5×10−22 and four.6×10−21eV∕c2 are unlikely to exist (Fig. 2). This disfavored mass vary, which will depend on the assumed spins of each the boson and the black gap, locations new constraints on darkish matter fashions within the very higher a part of the mass vary for the FDM situation.

Nevertheless, the bounds supplied by Davoudiasl and Denton needs to be taken with a grain of salt and thought of as a primary step. One cause for warning is that the researchers depend on easy estimates for the superradiance phenomena, which, for instance, don’t take into consideration the results of potential self-interactions between bosonic particles. Additionally, the EHT commentary supplied a outstanding affirmation of the mass of M87*, nevertheless it couldn’t but yield a transparent estimation of its spin, the essential parameter within the superradiance course of. Evaluation of EHT information—by groups inside and out of doors the collaboration—recommend that the M87* spin is nonzero and will even be near maximal [10], however additional affirmation is required.

Regardless of these cautious phrases, the outcomes by Davoudiasl and Denton are a major step within the seek for ultralight bosons, whether or not they represent darkish matter or not. They supply a further constraint on FDM fashions, and improve the vary of bosonic lots now probed by the superradiance impact.

This analysis is printed in Bodily Evaluation Letters.

References

Okay. Akiyama et al. (The EHT Collaboration), “First M87 Occasion Horizon Telescope outcomes. I. The shadow of the supermassive black gap,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 875, L1 (2019).H. Davoudiasl and P. B. Denton, “Ultralight boson darkish matter and Occasion Horizon Telescope observations of M87*,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 021102 (2019).A. Arvanitaki, S. Dimopoulos, S. Dubovsky, N. Kaloper, and J. March-Russell, “String axiverse,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 123530 (2010).D. J. E. Marsh, “Axion cosmology,” Phys. Rep. 643, 1 (2016).W. Hu, R. Barkana, and A. Gruzinov, “Fuzzy chilly darkish matter: The wave properties of ultralight particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1158 (2000).R. Penrose, “Gravitational collapse: The function of common relativity,” Riv. Nuovo Cimento 1, 252 (1969).R. Brito, V. Cardoso, and P. Pani, “Black holes as particle detectors: Evolution of superradiant instabilities,” Class. Quantum Grav. 32, 134001 (2015); W. E. East and F. Pretorius, “Superradiant instability and backreaction of huge vector fields round Kerr black holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 041101 (2017).A. Arvanitaki, M. Baryakhtar, and X. Huang, “Discovering the QCD axion with black holes and gravitational waves,” Phys. Rev. D 91, 084011 (2015).Okay. Akiyama et al. (The EHT Collaboration), “First M87 occasion horizon telescope outcomes. V. Bodily origin of the uneven ring,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 875, L5 (2019).F. Tamburini, B. Thidé, and M. Della Valle, “Measurement of the spin of the M87 black gap from its noticed twisted mild,” arxiv:1904.07923.

Concerning the Creator

Image of Eric Armengaud

Eric Armengaud is a researcher working on the IRFU institute of CEA-Saclay, France. He accomplished his Ph.D. on the APC and IAP laboratories in Paris, finding out extragalactic cosmic rays inside the Pierre Auger Observatory. At CEA he devoted his work to the EDELWEISS underground experiment within the seek for WIMP darkish matter and lighter axion-like particles. His analysis now focuses on the usage of cosmological observations, particularly from wide-field spectroscopic surveys (eBOSS and DESI), to review the properties of darkish matter.

Topic Areas

Associated Articles

Synopsis: Dark Energy Solution for Hubble TensionViewpoint: Dark Energy Faces Multiple ProbesAstrophysics

Viewpoint: Darkish Vitality Faces A number of Probes

Could 1, 2019

The Darkish Vitality Survey has mixed its evaluation of 4 cosmological observables to constrain the properties of darkish vitality—paving the best way for cosmological surveys that can run within the subsequent decade. Learn Extra »

Synopsis: Inflation Goes Up Against the Clock Extra Articles


Supply hyperlink

Show More

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Close