Barry Zink, Division of Physics and Astronomy, College of Denver, Denver, CO, USA
November 27, 2019• Physics 12, 134
New experiments counsel that warmth is likely to be chargeable for the current-induced voltage indicators measured in antiferromagnets, and never a rotation of the fabric’s spins as beforehand thought.
Determine 1: (Left) Platinum (Pt) strips grown on antiferromagnetic nickel oxide (NiO) movies convert cost present to spin present, which is meant to change the pointing course of the insulating NiO’s spins. The switching is noticed by way of a sawtooth voltage sample. Nonetheless, the Pt heats dramatically when the present is utilized and (proper) this heating reproduces the sawtooth sample even when no antiferromagnet is current.(Left) Platinum (Pt) strips grown on antiferromagnetic nickel oxide (NiO) movies convert cost present to spin present, which is meant to change the pointing course of the insulating NiO’s spins. The switching is noticed by way of a sawtooth voltage… Present extra
Determine 1: (Left) Platinum (Pt) strips grown on antiferromagnetic nickel oxide (NiO) movies convert cost present to spin present, which is meant to change the pointing course of the insulating NiO’s spins. The switching is noticed by way of a sawtooth voltage sample. Nonetheless, the Pt heats dramatically when the present is utilized and (proper) this heating reproduces the sawtooth sample even when no antiferromagnet is current.×
Ferromagnets—magnetic supplies during which the spins of neighboring atoms align—kind everlasting magnets whose “sticky” properties have been exploited in applied sciences for millennia. However their shut magnetic cousins the antiferromagnets, supplies during which neighboring spins level in reverse instructions, have but to search out sensible use. This lack of use probably arises from their sample of alternating spins, which ties the magnetic flux up inside the fabric, making its magnetism troublesome to detect and manipulate. Scientists are actually growing so-called all-electrical strategies to manage antiferromagnets; these strategies might lastly change this established order. However new measurements from Chih-Chieh Chiang from Nationwide Taiwan College and colleagues spotlight an issue with these strategies, indicating that switching the pointing instructions of an antiferromagnet’s spins—a requirement for his or her use in gadgets—with all-electrical strategies is likely to be harder than researchers thought .
From the primary iPod that saved music to in the present day’s server farms that home the world’s many cat movies, the spins of ferromagnets—which encode information’s 1’s and zero’s as domains of up- and down-pointing spins—have been key to creating usable gadgets for storing info. The success of this expertise has led researchers to ask whether or not spin may additionally be utilized for processing info. To realize that, so-called spintronic circuits, which may carry spin currents, would seemingly have to turn into smaller, extra secure, and quicker than they’re in the present day. That’s the place antiferromagnetic supplies are available in. For information storage, their sample of alternating spins reduces the influence of stray or close by magnetic fields, probably decreasing information loss by making their bits extra secure. For spin transport, the antiferromagnetic order of the spins ought to improve the utmost pace at which a spin wave can carry magnetic info by means of the fabric, permitting gadgets made out of antiferromagnets to function quicker than these made out of ferromagnets.
A number of latest advances have introduced antiferromagnets nearer to sensible use. In 2014, researchers demonstrated spin transport by means of an insulating antiferromagnet. The achievement may permit for quicker and extra vitality environment friendly gadgets than present gadgets made out of metals or semiconductors, as working a spin present by means of an insulator causes much less heating . Extra critically, in 2016, researchers found a easy technique to electrically “swap” an antiferromagnetic bit . Switching entails rotating the axes of the spins by some angle and is necessary for writing information.
To electrically swap a magnetic area, one injects a present of conduction electrons. The intrinsic angular momentum, or spin, of those electrons interacts with the orbital angular momentum of the atoms within the materials, producing a circulate of spins referred to as a spin present. If this spin present is absorbed by the magnetic area it causes a torque that may swap the area. This switching mechanism is due to this fact referred to as spin-orbit torque (SOT) switching. SOT switching is a strong instrument for manipulating ferromagnets , and there are lots of instruments for confirming a swap in these supplies. The identical will not be true for antiferromagnets, the place proving that a bit has switched seems to be harder. To watch the switching in metallic antiferromagnets the authors of Ref.  tailored measurement that’s delicate to the ordering of the fabric’s spins. Particularly, they utilized a sequence of huge present pulses to the metallic antiferromagnet with consecutive pulses flowing in reverse instructions. Switching was then monitored by way of the voltage induced by the planar Corridor impact. A sawtooth sample within the voltage was taken as affirmation of antiferromagnetic switching.
Very shortly after this groundbreaking work on a metallic antiferromagnet, analysis teams throughout the globe utilized the approach to antiferromagnetic insulators, reminiscent of nickel oxide (NiO). In these experiments, the insulator is interfaced to a metallic layer, most frequently platinum (Pt). A cost present within the Pt generates a spin present that may circulate into the NiO and swap areas of the antiferromagnet’s spins. Researchers initially relied on the identical electrical detection scheme used for metallic antiferromagnets, and certainly they noticed the attribute sawtooth sample. However the brand new work demonstrates that this key electrical signature will also be generated in a tool with no magnetic parts in any respect, resulting in questions in regards to the approach’s efficacy for detecting switching.
Chiang and colleagues began by depositing Four-nm-thick Pt strips in a star configuration on high of a 60-nm-thick NiO movie grown on a silicon substrate (Fig. 1). This machine reproduced these generally used for Pt/NiO SOT switching experiments. Making use of cost present pulses of about 30 mA that had been supposed to generate spin currents that will reorient the NiO’s spins, the staff noticed the attribute sawtooth voltage sample. In a second machine, the researchers changed the silicon with glass, a poor conductor of warmth, and noticed a big improve within the magnitude of the sawtooth voltage. This result’s surprising, because the NiO layer was nominally comparable in each experiments. Lastly, in a 3rd machine they deposited the Pt immediately on glass, eradicating the magnetic materials solely (Fig. 1). The sawtooth sign remained and had a good bigger magnitude than both of the indicators detected for the opposite two gadgets. This dramatic consequence clearly reveals that sign noticed in these experiments can’t be proof of switching of the insulating antiferromagnet.
Utilizing laptop fashions, Chiang and colleagues make a robust case that the sawtooth voltage sample is as a substitute attributable to warmth generated within the Pt strips. This warmth drives thermoelectric voltages that persist for surprisingly lengthy intervals of time, even as much as one hour. The warmed Pt and the ensuing thermal gradients that develop between the varied Pt strips rely upon the warmth conductivity of the underlying substrate, which is why glass, with its low warmth conductivity, causes bigger voltages. Thermal gradients of this kind often come up in spintronic gadgets and provide challenges and alternatives of their use .
Questions stay relating to the main points of the bodily mechanism producing the sawtooth indicators, which may contain electromigration—the transport of electrons as a result of presence of an electrical subject. Chiang et al.’s work raises considerations that we should resolve to comprehend spintronic gadgets primarily based on insulating antiferromagnets. Nonetheless, the researchers might paint with too broad a brush once they query whether or not SOT switching has been demonstrated in antiferromagnets in any respect. This concern ignores a great deal of proof in favor of antiferromagnetic switching, together with the demonstration of a reminiscence ingredient utilizing CuMnAs, a metallic antiferromagnet , and of imaging strategies that present modification of antiferromagnetic domains in response to cost currents [7–12]. Methods starting from synchrotron x-ray measurements to novel thermal scanning probe microscopy have additionally offered clear proof of switching in each metallic and insulating antiferromagnets, although by no means with the uniform area reversal seen in ferromagnets . All of those different strategies are a lot slower to implement than electrical ones, so measurements are made lengthy after the heating attributable to “writing” currents has dissipated.
Chiang et al.’s work may clarify a puzzling side of the switching experiments. A big voltage sign is commonly detected from what imaging strategies present is kind of minor realignment of the antiferromagnetic area sample. Maybe the nonmagnetic heating impact that Chiang and colleagues observe offers the sign’s origin. In that case, that will probably resolve this thriller. The staff additionally highlights a lot of different puzzles that have to be solved to proceed progress within the subject. For instance, does an antiferromagnetic movie that’s only some nanometers thick have the identical spin construction as the majority materials? Do the totally different interfaces, which come up from various the substrate, modify the spin-orbit coupling all through the movie stack? Maybe most significantly, does an artifact-free electrical technique exist for detecting antiferromagnetic switching in insulators? These questions spotlight the issue in harnessing antiferromagnets, however answering them may but put antiferromagnets to very sensible use.
This analysis is revealed in Bodily Assessment Letters.
C. C. Chiang, S. Y. Huang, D. Qu, P. H. Wu, and C. L. Chien, “Absence of proof of electrical switching of the antiferromagnetic Néel vector,” Phys Rev. Lett. 123, 227203 (2019).H. Wang, C. Du, P. C. Hammel, and F. Yang, “Antiferromagnonic spin transport from Y3Fe5O12 into NiO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 097202 (2014).P. Wadley et al., “Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet,” Science 351, 587 (2016).A. Manchon, J. Železný, I. M. Miron, T. Jungwirth, J. Sinova, A. Thiaville, Ok. Garello, and P. Gambardella, “Present-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic methods,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 91, 035004 (2019).C. H. Again, G. E. W. Bauer, and B. L. Zink, “Particular difficulty on spin caloritronics,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 52, 230301 (2019).Ok. Olejník et al., “Antiferromagnetic CuMnAs multi-level reminiscence cell with microelectronic compatibility,” Nat. Comun. eight, 15434 (2017).M. J. Grzybowski et al., “Imaging current-induced switching of antiferromagnetic domains in CuMnAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 057701 (2017).P. Wadley et al., “Present polarity-dependent manipulation of antiferromagnetic domains,” Nat. Nanotech. 13, 362 (2018).S. Yu. Bodnar, M. Filianina, S. P. Bommanaboyena, T. Forrest, F. Maccherozzi, A. A. Sapozhnik, Y. Skourski, M. Kläui, and M. Jourdan, “Imaging of present induced Néel vector switching in antiferromagnetic Mn2Au,” Phys. Rev. B 99, 140409R (2019).T. Moriyama, Ok. Oda, T. Ohkochi, M. Kimata, and T. Ono, “Spin torque management of antiferromagnetic moments in NiO,” Sci. Rep. eight, 14167 (2018).L. Baldrati et al., “Mechanism of Néel order switching in antiferromagnetic skinny movies revealed by magnetotransport and direct imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 177201 (2019).I. Grey et al., “Spin Seebeck imaging of spin-torque switching in antiferromagnetic Pt/NiO heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 9, 041016 (2019).
Concerning the Creator
Professor Barry L. Zink leads a analysis group on the College of Denver specializing in measurements of warmth, cost, and spin transport in skinny movies and nanostructures. These measurements are sometimes enabled by micro- and nanomachined thermal isolation platforms that use free-standing, silicon nitride membranes. Barry accomplished his Ph.D. on the College of California, San Diego, in 2002 and has since earned honors together with the Piercy Distinguished Visiting Professorship (College of Minnesota), the NSF CAREER award, and the NRC Postdoctoral award. His group’s present initiatives vary from growing new supplies for small-scale cooling and vitality conversion to understanding how spin travels in disordered magnetic methods.